In the modern business world, the intricate choreography of data exchange is often likened to a well-orchestrated symphony, where each instrument has its own individual role, but they all work together to create a seamless product — the music.

SAP Interface functionality serves as the conductor, ensuring each note of information is precisely timed and harmoniously played between SAP systems, function modules, and external applications that comprise an organization’s digital landscape. While they may not steal the spotlight, SAP Interfaces are the unsung heroes of business process efficiency, seamlessly integrating disparate systems and transforming data into actionable insights.

In this article, we’ll discuss the key capabilities and components of SAP Interfaces, how they can shape the future of enterprise connectivity, and where our expert SAP consultant team can come in to help.

What is an Interface?

An interface refers to a point of interaction or a connection between multiple disparate systems, applications, or external entities. These interfaces facilitate the exchange of data and information between their internal system and various external systems, enabling seamless integration and interoperability across their entire technical landscape.

Interfaces in the SAP system enable companies to exchange data more efficiently, convert event data to business objects, and facilitate data transfer to the target system. This allows companies to reduce errors in exchanging data and gives employees more time to focus on value-added tasks.

SAP offers various tools and technologies to create and manage interfaces, such as:

  • SAP PI/PO (Process Integration/Process Orchestration)
  • SAP Data Services
  • SAP Cloud Platform Integration
  • Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)

These tools help organizations customize and configure interfaces to meet their specific integration needs, whether it involves integrating SAP systems with each other or with external systems.

Understanding the SAP Application Interface Framework

The SAP Application Interface Framework (AIF) is designed to help SAP customers design, deploy, monitor, and manage all application and system interfaces in a single location. This way, companies can create and leverage dynamic web services, improve interface modeling, handle errors, and transfer data more efficiently across teams and systems.

SAP AIF also enables users to separate the technical and functional aspects of their interfaces, making it easier to manage data, process and store messages, and enforce critical interface implementation guidelines. The Application Interface Framework is available for both on-premise and cloud deployment, so companies can implement and maintain interfaces in whatever kind of technical landscape they choose.

With intelligent interface frameworks and monitoring capabilities, users are enabled to:

  • Use a template-based approach and customization features to implement new interfaces
  • Support multiple interface technologies to establish a more robust system architecture
  • Improve error handling through role-based access, user authentication requirements, and automated system alerts
  • Assign responsibilities for specific interface areas to authorized business users
  • Control access to data segments and interfaces to improve data security and governance

Top 9 Interface and Integration Methods in the SAP System

1) File Interface

As one of the oldest interfacing methods, the file interface provides a basic, surface-level approach to exchanging data between a company’s existing SAP system and other third-party systems and applications. The file interface approach allows users to transfer data by pushing the text or Excel file to a particular directory OR extracting it from the existing application server.

This approach requires little complex coding, making it easier for users to leverage FTP/SFTP to transfer the selected file from SAP to any external, third-party system. From here, the file is sent to the SAP NetWeaver Process Integration (PI) framework to convert and map the data based on third-party system requirements, making it available to send the file in the desired format, including JSON, XML file, and more.

2) IDoc

Intermediate Document (IDoc) is another older but functional approach to facilitating communication between SAP to SAP or SAP to non-SAP systems, providing an established file format for exchanging data between systems. The file format includes a specific data structure, fields with the position and length of each file, header, data segments, and statuses for each recorded segment.

IDoc interfaces are asynchronous and based on the Application Link Enabling (ALE) framework, allowing for the existing SAP system to communicate via electronic data interchange (EDI) and any other existing ERP system, such as CRM, Finance, or HR, communicate via ALE.

With connections between in-house SAP systems and other third-party technologies, companies can send messages in one format and convert the file into IDoc file format to send to the SAP system. This makes it easier for business users to handle both inbound and outbound data exchange between systems.


Representational State Transfer (REST) is an established architectural style for designing and connecting networked applications, leveraging resource-led technology, where all components of the interface act as resources to create communication channels between two systems.

With SAP Gateway functionality, companies can provide both RFC interfaces and SAP ABAP functions in the form of a REST API, allowing users to leverage HTTP protocol to drive the synchronous transfer of data between systems and file formats.

Here are a few key differences between REST Web Service and SOAP APIs:

  • REST provides a lighter design and functionality
  • REST is faster than SOAP
  • REST can transform data directly into JSON or XML format
  • REST supports critical CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operations
  • REST can operate synchronously or be set to align with system requirements
  • REST is stateless, allowing system resources to be saved


Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) provides an intelligent web service for communicating and exchanging data through SAP-to-SAP and non-SAP-to-SAP interfaces, making it easier for companies to leverage HTTP protocol and Web Service Description Language (WSDL) functionality to facilitate better communication.

SOAP APIs are typically used asynchronously but can be configured to meet specific business requirements. By leveraging the SOAP interface, companies can ensure reliable messaging (RM), ensuring the receiving system receives the message and regularly transfers data between systems.

5) Remote Function Call

The Remote Function Call (RFC) interface is typically used to facilitate connections between SAP and non-SAP systems and between two different SAP systems, leveraging the Client and Server concept to perform functions and make calls to the RFC server to execute the specified function synchronously.

In the same realm as RFC connection, SAP established the Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI) to expose specific business objects to the remote system, making it easier to access each instance of the exposed business object and establish robust connections between SAP technologies.

6) S/4HANA

SAP S/4HANA is based on the HANA in-memory database, providing on-premise, cloud, or hybrid deployment models to help business users easily pull data from their existing systems and create models to display data in a more comprehensible manner.

The S/4HANA system follows the code-to-data paradigm, which leverages code pushdown mechanisms to complete data computations in the database layer rather than the application layer. It also offers a few different information models to display data more efficiently, including attribute view, analytical view, calculation view, decision table, and more.

S/4HANA interfaces leverage the following concepts to facilitate connection between systems:

  • Core Data Services (CDS)
  • SAP ABAP Managed Data Procedure (AMDP)
  • Open Item Analytics (OIA)
  • CDS Table Functions
  • Business Object Processing Framework (BOPF)

7) Behavior Definition Language

Behavior Definition Language (BDL) interfaces exist to add behavior to existing business objects, including how the entity will behave, what syntax they will use, and how each entity will be created.

8) OData

The Open Data Protocol (OData) facilitates the construction and consumption of RESTful APIs, allowing OData to be consumed through any application, software, program, or device. OData is also connected to the SAP system via HTTP protocol, meaning that even when connecting non-SAP systems, users can still parse and construct the XML file according to specific business requirements.

9) Web API

With the RESTful programming model, Web APIs will be adopted and operated in parallel to OData and Fiori, leveraging HTTP protocol to establish API connection and improve business process efficiency between systems.

Main Advantages of Connecting Applications with SAP Interfaces

Intelligent SAP interfaces support scalability, flexibility, and adaptability to evolving business needs. They empower organizations to leverage their SAP investments more effectively, ensuring their systems work harmoniously with the broader IT landscape.

Here are the top five advantages of SAP interfaces for business users:

Efficient Data Exchange: SAP interfaces enable efficient and accurate data exchange between SAP systems and other applications or external entities. This streamlines data transfer, reducing manual data entry and the risk of data errors, leading to improved data quality.

Process Automation: SAP interfaces facilitate the automation of business processes that span multiple systems. This automation saves time and ensures consistency and compliance with predefined workflows, reducing human error and increasing operational efficiency.

Real-time Updates: Many SAP interfaces support real-time data synchronization, allowing for up-to-the-minute information sharing between systems. This real-time capability enables faster decision-making and responsiveness to changing business conditions.

Enhanced User Experience: Interfaces can provide a seamless and user-friendly experience by allowing users to access SAP data and functions through familiar interfaces or third-party applications. This improves user adoption and satisfaction while increasing productivity.

Integration with External Systems: SAP interfaces enable integration with various external systems, including suppliers, customers, and partners. This integration streamlines collaboration, enhances supply chain management, and improves customer service, ultimately increasing competitiveness.

How Can We Help?

Whether you need help implementing new SAP interface technology for the first time, establishing remote function calls between existing systems, or broadening your company’s technical perspective through well-defined interfaces, Surety Systems is here to help.

Our senior-level, US-based SAP consultant team has the functional knowledge, technical skills, and real-world experience to handle all your SAP project needs and maximize operational efficiency.

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Interested in learning how SAP interfaces connect your SAP and non-SAP systems more effectively and where our specifically tailored SAP consulting services can fit in your organization?

Contact us today!